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干货分享:80组雅思替换用法,让你不只会用because~

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发表于 4 天前 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  今天给大家送来了超级干货——80组雅思转折替换用法,助大家早日屠鸭成功!
  如果你在写作时除了because就不知道该怎样转折了,那么今天北京新东方雅思老师就整理了雅思写作中最常见的一种论证方法:因果论证,以及里面可以用到的一些表达,可供你参考。
  下面的总结分为 4 大类:
  基础替换词:比如 since、as、due to 等
  从句和句型:比如 which leads to、with 结构等
  表达的转述:比如 be responsible for 等
  不完全替换:比如 by dint of 等
  其中重点推荐第 2 种和第 3 种方式,希望各位小烤鸭看完后会觉得非常实用,以至于下次写到 because的时候可能都会觉得不替换不舒服。
  一. 不完全替换
  1. in this way 这样
  例句:In this way, themanager develops a powerful data base of information.
  2. as long as 只要
  例句:There are few moral limits imposed, so long as what happens is between consenting adults.
  3. 一定程度表示“因为”,后面接句子,但是相对非常少用了:
  insomuch as
  inasmuch as
  insomuch that
  insofar as
  insofar that
  例句1:The economicforecast for the coming decade looks promising,inasmuch as we can predict that far in advance.
  例句2:The present studywas limited in this regard insofar that behavior change was not assessed.
  4. 表示“考虑到,鉴于”的意思:
  considering
  seeing that
  given
  in consideration of
  in view of the fact that
  例句1:Given such adramatic impact on children's lives, one might expecttoday's high divorce rate to be viewed more widely as a national crisis.
  例句2:Seeing that thereis often poor visibility, the site chosen as an airportis not appropriate.
  5. in order to
  in order that 为了
  例句:All the parts for this kind of machinemust be made of especially strong materials in order that they will not breakwhile in use .
  6. out of 从…中来
  例句:Confidence enables you to win, and by winning you get enjoyment out of the game.
  7. not … until 直到…才
  例句:It is not until the recent nuclear leakagethat the increasingly dangerous nature of the nuclear power has become clear.
  8. by dint of 凭借
  例句:Trying new and different products by dintof what new and different labels show up on the bar has become second nature tothem.
  二. 表达的转述
  这里的所有表达,原意思都不是完全的表达“因为”或者“所以“。但是当两者有前后因果关系时,根据具体的情况,可以尝试表达更加自然一些。
  使用的时候,记得根据原始场景的褒贬意思,以及具体的情况进行调整。有任何不确定的地方,多多参考例句和查词典。
  1. be responsible for / be held accountablefor 负责任
  例句:Low-cost airline travel has beenresponsible for the marked growth in the number of passengers who take trips onscheduled airlines.
  2. be a major culprit in 是…的罪魁祸首
  例句:It is said that carbon pollution is amajor culprit in driving the planet into ecological overdraft.
  3. be instrumental to 有帮助的
  例句:This state of affairs, if not changed, will not be instrumental tothe implementation of the Tax Law.
  4. come from 来自于,由于
  例句:A dignity comes from being in control.
  5. stem from 基于
  例句:Many of the universities' problems stemfrom rapid expansion.
  6. breed 孕育,导致
  例句:There is ample historical evidence thatgovernment control over banks' lending canbreed cronyism and misallocation offunds.
  7. be derived from 源自于
  例句:Technical goals are not terriblymeaningful to the success of a product unless they are derived from the need tomeet other more human-oriented goals.
  8.generate 产生
  例句:It is falsely believed that higher taxesand more state involvement in the economy cangenerate prosperity.
  9. create 造成,引起
  例句:Eliminating such inequalities in the earlyyears of life would simply create a new kind of inequality, driven by genetics.
  10. play a major role in 扮演重要角色
  例句:Efficiency,courtesy, and trustworthiness may play a major role inproduct differentiation.
  11. be associated with / be implicated in 和…有关
  例句:Smoking cigarette is known to beimplicated in the development of some cancers.
  12.account for 是…的原因,合理解释
  例句:Even if correct,however, this explanation would not account for thehealth problems of their younger daughter, who has notyet attended high school.
  13.in the wake of 接踵而来
  例句:In the wake of developments in science andtechnology, man has become more capable of conqueringnature.
  14. stimulated by / spurred by 在…的刺激下
  例句1:Stimulated by thefavorable policies, industry of animation and comicsgradually prospered and made remarkable achievements.
  例句2:Stimulated byfactors such as increase in the investment, theindustrial growth was accelerated.
  15. trigger 名词动词均可,表示:引发,(不良的反应的)起因
  例句:the power outage was triggered by heavyrains.
  The trigger for the strike was the closure ofyet another factory.
  16. spark off 引发(一般不好的结果)
  例句:Changes in ecosystems could lead to social, economic and political change, andcouldspark off wars.
  17. occasion 引起
  例句:The failure of the crops occasioned therise in price.
  18.conduce to 有助于
  例句:Each producer, inpaying his quota of the taxes levied generally for the construction of roads, pays for the use of those which conduce to his convenience.
  19. incur 带来(成本、花费等)
  例句:A disunited nation has to incur undulyhigh costs of government.
  20. ensue 接着发生(不及物动词) / ensure from 结果产生于
  例句1:Consequently, there can be a lot of competition during the negotiations thatensue afterward.
  例句2:The evils ensuefrom lack of astable government.
  21. by virtue of 由于(中性词)
  例句1:By virtue of thissuperior quality, this product is often sold out ofstock in many areas.
  例句2:Plastic bags areuseful for holding many kinds of food, by virtue oftheir clearness, toughness, andlow cost.
  22. on the score of 因为
  例句:There is another possibility on the scoreof fresh evidence.
 

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 楼主| 发表于 4 天前 | 显示全部楼层
 三. 从句和句型
  Group 1
  1. … , which leads to …
  2. with … , …
  with 结构除了表示“随着”,也可以表达“因为”。后面记得不接常规完整句子,而是名词,或者一些分词的形式。
  例句:I couldn’t sleep with the noise of the traffic.
  3. The reason why … is that …
  The reason why 后面接结果,is that 后面加原因,都是写完整的句子。
  4. This is because …
  5. The main/ primary reason is that … .
  6. That is why … .
  例句:That is why this year is likely to be just the beginning of many discussions like the one at the Munich security conference.
  7. It is only because … that …
  例句:It is only because we have become used to these extraordinarily fragile structuresthat this demand seems so outrageous.
  Group 2
  1. …, leading to …
  2. …, thus doing …
  3. …, thereby doing …
  例句:Unions often rely on volunteers to administrate, thereby keeping costs at a minimum.
  4. thereby
  例句:This is due to ignorant motorists who fail to stop and thereby put the lives of her and the children at risk.
  5. leading to
  这个可以用任何其他表示“导致”的词汇去替换。
  例句:A second object was described to be identical to the one seen by the second mission,leading to the same conclusion as to its risk.
  后两个句子种的 doing,要根据句子本身表达的内容去写对应的动词。thereby 单独用的时候,一般在句中,做一个普通的副词。
  Group 3
  1. be a contributing factor
  例句:Human error may have been a contributing factor.
  2. be a factor contributing to
  3. be a contributory cause of
  例句:Smoking may be a contributory cause of the disease.
  4. be contributing to
  be a major contributor to
  attribute … to …
  … be attributed to
  … be attributable to
  contribute 和 attribute 某种程度来讲是一对反义词。前者是 A 促成了 B,后者是把 B 归因于 A。所以后者更多用被动来表达。
  例句1:Supermarkets are the main contributors to this mountain of food.
  例句2:Juvenile delinquency can be attributed to parental permissiveness.
  例句3:The health problems are attributable to a poor diet and lack of exercise.
  Group 4
  第 1、2 个表达强调后面的原因是最重要的,后面 3 个都表达这个原因是相对次要的。
  1. …, not least because …
  2. …, in large part because
  例句:Despite well-intentioned policies and laws, the situation on the ground is often quite different, in large part because of the difficulty of enforcement, both within and across borders.
  3. …, if for no other (better) reason than
  例句:It is essential, if for no other reason than for a unity in teaching, that each member of the school community adopts a common outlook on life.
  4. …, because at least…
  例句:Monotony is a big problem for the moralist because at least half of human's bad habits result from his fear of it.
  5. …, if only because
  例句:We are confident if only because we are making progress.
  Group 5
  1. … so … that …
  2. So … that …
  例句:So scarce is the food that many people suffer from starvation.
  3. Such … that …
  例句:Such is the moment that all greats traverse.
  4. … enough … that …
  例句:Another excellent way to eliminate error messages is to make the application smartenough that it no longer needs to make unnecessary demands.
  这几个词组都是围绕常规的“如此…以至于…”句型的一些变形。so 后面加形容词,such 后面加名词,他们两个放句首,需要倒装。
  这个表达在因果关系种不是特别常见,因为不是每次的原因都可以变到 so/ such 后面去。
  四. 基础替换词
  1.“因为”的替换中,now that 和 in that 算是比较少见特别的。前者也有“既然”的意思,而后者在牛津词典中的解释就是:for the reason that。
  因为(+从句):because/ since/ as/ for/ for the reason that / now that/ in that
  例句:Now that major change of the kind long called for is underway, it is incumbent on the international community to help ensure success by lending its full support.
  2.“所以”的替换中,除了 so/ with the result that 之外,其他一般都用在句首更多,并且需要大写首字母,后面加上逗号。accordingly 也有很多时候放在句末,表示“相应地”。
  所以(+句子):so/ therefore/ thus/ hence/ as a result/ as a consequence/ consequently/ for this reason/ for all these reasons/ so that/ accordingly/ with the result that
  例句:Many students spend two or more hours playing video games each day. As a result,their grades suffer and they sometimes need to repeat classes.
  3. 由于(+非句子):due to/ because of/ result from/ owing to/ thanks to/ on account of/ as a result of/ in consequence of
  例句:The erratic fluctuation of market prices is in consequence of an unstable economy.
  4. “导致”的意思的表达,都算是动词词组,前后需要加上主语和宾语,都不是句子的形式,而是名词或者名词性的词组、动名词、分词等。
  导致(+非句子):lead to/ cause/ contribute to/ result in/ give rise to/ bring about
  例句:Many students spend two or more hours playing video games each day. As a result,their grades suffer and they sometimes need to repeat classes.
  如果想在类似 lead to 或者 due to 后面加一长串完整的句子,我们可以写成 due to the fact that/ lead to the fact that,虽然这样非常啰嗦,但是以凑字数为目的,也是一个选择。
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