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如何进行GRE的Issue写作

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发表于 2020-11-10 00:04:45 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  在进行issue写作时,很多同学都会洋洋洒洒写很长,但分数仍然没有质的飞跃。其实,issue的写作最重要的不是观点是否新颖,例证是否完全具有说服力,而重要的是体现出你的逻辑思维能力,以及对于这个话题正反两方面的考量的认知。本期开始,下面来分享一些issue写作心得。这些段落构造方法属于万能方法,并不针对于某一道题目。但是掌握了这些段落方法之后,相信大家在处理任何一道题目的时候都能更清晰地知道该从哪些角度思考落笔。
  1、段落构造方法之背景讨论法
  每一个issue话题之所以成为一道写作题目,一定是有其社会背景的。有些题目的社会意义可能对于中国同学来说显得比较陌生。
  譬如,Issue中有一道题目说是否应该采用国家统一的课程。在中国上学的孩子,尤其是义务教育阶段,虽然教材可能有不同的版本,但基本都遵循了教育部所发布的课程大纲。各个版本的相似性也远远大于差异性。但是,在美国社会各州自己为政的背景下,所谓的“国家”统一课程是并不存在的。一些人支持统一的课程,而另一些人则认为统一课程有着诸多现实条件的限制。你看,这样一个我们中国人会认为不值得一轮的话题放在美国的社会环境中就显出了controversy。
  其实,基本所有的issue题目都具有一定程度的controversy。如果是“大是大非”的问题,则毫无讨论的价值,学生所写出的文章也仅仅是对已经板上钉钉的事情多了一笔毫无用处的废话。因此,确定性的话题不会成为issue议题,亦即,成为issue议题一定是在至少美国社会的环境中存在几乎势均力敌的辩论。
  那么,我们就可以通过构造一个段落,来讨论为什么这个issue会成为一个issue。在讨论的过程中,实际上也是我们更加深入思考这个话题社会意义的过程。
  2、段落结构
  这种段落一般我会放在文章的首段或第二段,类似于一个hook。但是与那种特别水的hook相比,我们要能分析出为什么人们发生了争议,人们的争议点来自于哪里,同时,你又会如何在文章中解决这样的争议点。
  一个典型的段落结构包含以下几个元素,他们的位置可能是不固定的。
  (1)对议题的paraphrase。
  (2)为什么这个issue值得讨论,即重要性
  (3)为什么会有正反两方的观点,核心的纠纷点在哪里。
  3、示范段落
  接下来,我通过一下几个小题来给大家示范一下这种段落的写法。
  01
  Teachers'salaries should be based on their students' academic performance
  解题:这道题目的大背景可能在于美国基础公立教育的“全线崩盘”。很多美国公立高中的教育质量并不高,教师和经费是两个主要的原因。理想主义者通常抱怨,没有好的老师,没有足够的投入,则无法产出优质的教育;但是实干家们通常想的问题是如何利用现有的资源提升教育质量。
  通过对教师收入的刺激或许是一个很好的途径。所以,我们不妨先来谈谈给教师incentive的必要性,再在后面的段落去讨论这种incentive是否一定要基于学生的学术表现。
  范文:Salaryincentives are essential for ensuring that teachers maximize teaching skillsand, in turn, their students’ understanding of the topic. Without incentives, teachers may recycle old teaching materials and deliver unappealingpresentations. They can coast on mediocre methods rather than strive to improvetheir teaching abilities because there is no reason for them to want toimprove. They do not need to worry whether students understand what they saybecause they will get paid the same amount regardless of whether students evenattend the classes. In other words, without incentives, there is no reason for teachers to care about teaching.
  02
  Collegesand universities should require their students to spend at least one semesterstudying in a foreign country.
  解题:学生是否应该在大学期间到国外读上一个学期呢?(作为国际教育行业的参与者,我自己是非常鼓励这种行为的)。我们可以先想想,为什么这个议题会成为一个议题?很重要的一个原因就是我们今天丰富的物质基础已经让出国留学变成了一种可能。我们可以先通过一个段落来讨论,今天的很多家庭确已经ready for studying abroad了,同时可以让那些持有所谓的“经济负担”观点的人“闭嘴”。
  范文:Today’s society has laid the foundation to make study abroad a morerealistic option than ever before. First, there are fewinternational conflicts such as the Cold War that threaten to escalate into aserious crisis for students; even if there are smallerflare-ups, it is easy to monitor the situation and takeappropriate action based on 24-hour news reporting via the internet.  Secondly, collegesand universities are offering more programs for international students than inthe past. The institutions help the successful applicants with relatedpaperwork, too, facilitatingvisa processing, homestay or apartment arrangements, and so on. Finally, it is financially moreviable for many families to send their children on study abroad programs.Middle-class families can afford airline tickets that would have been out oftheir reach in past generations. Impoverished but dedicated students can evenparticipate through a variety of grants and scholarships advertised by privatefoundations and government organizations and designed to help young peopleprepare for careers in the international scene. For such reasons, study abroad is much easier than it had been in the past, which makes the recommendation more practical.
  03
  Collegestudents should base their choice of a field of study on the availability ofjobs in that field.
  解题:为什么有人建议今天的大学生在择业的时候要考虑工作?肯定是在这个社会里,工作变得难找了。以前中国的大学生很多都是毕业包分配,或者企业对人才的需求旺盛,学生还没毕业就都提前签订了就业合同。现在可不一样了,分分钟毕业即失业。所以,我们先讨论一下大背景肯定一下找工作艰难的大环境是有意义的。我们可以分析一下为什么大学生找工作变难了?你都能想到什么原因?
  范文:It ismuch harder for college graduates to find jobs in their chosen fields than itwas in the past. Recently, large numbers ofcorporations have transitioned from hiring local workers to outsourcing jobs toforeign workers, particularly those in less-developedcountries who are willing to work for lower wages.  Modern graduates are therefore competing in aworld market rather than only against a few other people in the region. Inaddition, other jobs are being replaced by technology.As AI improves, there is less need for human workers toassemble parts, operate delicate equipment, or even process simple reports. To be competitive for the remainingjobs, students need specialized skills. It is notenough to have a bachelor’s degree; today, many entry-level positions preferworkers with more advanced education or certifications. Students with onlygeneralized degrees will be passed over in favor of ones who have the skill setan employer is looking for. As a result, studentsshould pay great attention to what field they choose to enter. They shouldanalyze the market and tailor their education so they are prepared for the jobsavailable upon graduation.
  以上就是我们今天介绍的背景讨论法。总结起来,就是先把整个话题放置于social context中,讨论这个话题的“可讨论性”,主要回答的核心问题就是为什么今天这个statement成为了一个人们需要关注的话题,为什么从前不是?以及讨论这个话题究竟能给我们带来什么启发何意义。
  不过背景讨论法不宜过长,一般建议100-150词的一个段落即可,否则就很容易写跑题。更多知识点可关注下北京新东方的GRE系列课程。从强化到精讲精练班,再到冲分班课程,满足学员备考前的不同需求~

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